Patient having their blood pressure checked

Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a condition which affects millions of individuals worldwide. It is characterised by the persistent elevation of blood pressure in the arteries, leading to increased workload on the cardiovascular system. Despite its prevalence, hypertension often goes unnoticed because it may not present noticeable symptoms until it has caused significant damage or leads to severe health complications. The potential lack of these symptoms shows how important it is to be aware of this condition, and detect it as early as possible. By identifying hypertension early, it is easier to manage it quickly and possibly prevent any serious complications. 

The guide, aims to empower readers with essential information and practical advice to manage hypertension, emphasizing the significance of maintaining healthy blood pressure levels for general well-being. Throughout this guide, we will explore the latest advancements in treating and managing high blood pressure, including hypertension medication, lifestyle adjustments, and innovative treatment approaches. By providing insights into managing this condition, we aim to foster a proactive attitude towards health, encouraging individuals to take control of their hypertension and lead healthier lives. 

Understanding Hypertension

Hypertension, or high blood pressure occurs when the force of blood against the artery walls is too high, leading to health complications over time. It’s measures in millimetres of mercury (mmHg) and defined by two numbers: the systolic pressure (during heartbeats) and the diastolic pressure (between beats). 

Global Impact

Affecting approximately 1 in 4 adults globally, hypertension is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and a significant cause of premature death worldwide. Its prevalence underscores the importance of global awareness and proactive management strategies. 

Causes & Risk Factors

The causes of hypertension can be classified into two main categories: 

  • Primary Hypertension: The majority of cases have no identifiable cause but are influenced by factors such as genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors. 
  • Secondary Hypertension: This type results from underlying conditions like kidney disease or certain medications. Identifying and treating the root cause can often control or eliminate this form of hypertension. 

Risk factors for developing hypertension include a family history of the condition, age (the risk increases as one gets older), being overweight or obese, lack of physical activity, tobacco use, excessive salt consumption, high alcohol intake, and stress. Ethnicity also plays a role, with certain groups being more predisposed to high blood pressure than others. 

Understanding hypertension and its risk factors is crucial for prevention and management. Regular monitoring of blood pressure, even in the absence of symptoms, can help detect hypertension early and prevent its progression. This proactive approach is essential for reducing the risk of heart attacks, strokes, and other serious health issues associated with high blood pressure. 

Symptoms & Complications

Hypertension is often labelled as the ‘silent killer’ because it may not exhibit noticeable symptoms until it has caused substantial harm to the body. This is why it’s important to get an understanding of the condition for early intervention and management. For many individuals, the first indication of hypertension could be the occurrence of a severe complication, such as a heart attack or stroke.  

Symptoms of Hypertension 

In some cases, particularly when blood pressure reaches dangerously high level, individuals may experience symptoms include headaches, shortness of breath, nosebleeds, flushing, dizziness, chest pain, visual changes, and blood in the urine. 

However, these symptoms can be mistaken for other conditions, which is why hypertension can go unnoticed for years. The absence of symptoms doesn’t mean the condition isn’t causing damage to the heart, kidneys, blood vessels, and other parts of the body. Regular blood pressure checks are essential for early detection. 

Complications of Uncontrolled Hypertension 

The consequences of untreated or poorly managed hypertension are far-reaching and can lead to several serious, potentially life-threatening health issues: 

  • Heart Disease and Stroke: High blood pressure can harden and narrow the arteries, leading to heart disease, coronary artery disease, and an increased risk of heart attack and stroke. 
  • Kidney Damage: Hypertension can impair the kidneys’ ability to filter waste from the blood, leading to kidney disease or failure. 
  • Vision Loss: The condition can damage the blood vessels in the retina, causing retinopathy, which can lead to blindness. 
  • Sexual Dysfunction: It can affect both men’s and women’s sexual health, leading to erectile dysfunction and decreased libido. 
  • Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD): High blood pressure can cause a narrowing of the blood vessels in the legs, leading to pain, mobility issues, and if there is no blood supply it can lead to loss of limb! 

The link between hypertension and these complications underscores the importance of early diagnosis and consistent management. It’s possible to significantly reduce the risk of these severe outcomes by regular monitoring, lifestyle changes, and taking medication. This highlights the need for increased awareness and proactive health strategies. 

By understanding the silent nature of hypertension and the potential severity of its complications, individuals are better equipped to seek timely medical advice and adopt healthier lifestyles. The next sections of our guide will explore the diagnosis process, treatment options, and management strategies to control hypertension, emphasising the critical role of early intervention in preventing long-term health issues. 

Diagnosing Hypertension

The process of diagnosing hypertension is straightforward and primarily involves measuring blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer, a device that records the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps. Blood pressure readings are expressed in millimetres of mercury (mmHg) and feature two numbers: the systolic pressure over the diastolic pressure. A normal blood pressure reading is around 120/80 mmHg. Hypertension is generally diagnosed when a person’s blood pressure is consistently 140/90 mmHg or higher on several separate occasions. 

Steps in Diagnosing Hypertension 

The steps for diagnosing hypertension are as follows: 

  1. Initial Screening: A healthcare professional will measure your blood pressure during routine check-ups. If your reading is high, you will usually be asked to return for additional checks. 
  2. Confirmation of Hypertension: To confirm a diagnosis of hypertension, your doctor may recommend monitoring your blood pressure over a few weeks or months, depending on the initial readings. This monitoring can include visits to the clinic and at-home blood pressure measurements. 
  3. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM): In some cases, doctors might suggest ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, where your blood pressure is measured as you move about your normal daily activities. This method helps to ensure that the readings are accurate and not just elevated due to the stress of being in a medical setting – a phenomenon known as “white-coat hypertension”. 

Additional Tests 

If hypertension is confirmed, additional tests may be recommended to identify any underlying causes or to assess the impact of high blood pressure on organs such as the heart, kidneys, and eyes. These tests can include: 

  • Blood Tests: To check for signs of kidney damage, diabetes, or high cholesterol. 
  • Urine Tests: To further evaluate kidney function. 
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG): To detect any heart issues that hypertension might have caused. 
  • Echocardiogram: To view the heart’s functioning and structure. 
  • Eye Exams: To detect changes in the blood vessels of the eyes. 

Importance of Early Diagnosis 

Early detection of hypertension is critical. It allows for timely intervention to control blood pressure and prevent the development of more severe health complications, such as heart attack, stroke, and kidney disease. Regular blood pressure screenings are vital, especially for individuals over the age of 40 or those in high-risk groups based on family history, obesity, or other pre-existing conditions.

Treatment & Management

Effective management of hypertension is a multifaceted approach that encompasses lifestyle interventions and, when necessary, pharmacological treatments. The goal is to achieve and maintain blood pressure levels within a normal range to minimise the risk of hypertension-related complications. 

Lifestyle Modifications 

The foundation of hypertension management is lifestyle modification, which can have a profound impact on blood pressure control: 

  • Diet: Embrace a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins. 
  • Sodium Intake: Strive to limit sodium consumption. Even a modest reduction in sodium can significantly improve heart health and reduce blood pressure. 
  • Physical Activity: Engage in regular physical activity, aiming for at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic exercise or 75 minutes of vigorous exercise per week. 
  • Weight Management: Maintaining a healthy weight is crucial. Weight loss can be one of the most effective ways to lower blood pressure if you are overweight or obese. 
  • Alcohol & Tobacco: Limit alcohol intake and avoid tobacco use. Smoking cessation and moderating alcohol consumption can improve overall heart health. 
  • Stress Reduction: Implement stress management techniques, as chronic stress may contribute to elevated blood pressure. 


Medications play a critical role in hypertension management, especially for individuals who cannot achieve target blood pressure levels through lifestyle changes alone. The primary categories of hypertension medications include: 

  • ACE Inhibitors & ARBs: Effective in relaxing blood vessels and reducing blood volume, thus lowering blood pressure. 
  • Beta-Blockers: These medications reduce the workload on your heart and open your veins and arteries to improve blood flow. However, these are rarely used to manage blood pressure and are usually prescribed alongside other antihypertensives and/or if patient suffers with other heart conditions. 
  • Diuretics: They help the kidneys eliminate excess salt and water from the body. 
  • Calcium Channel Blockers: These drugs help relax the muscles of your blood vessels and some slow down the heart rate to lower blood pressure.
  • Renin Inhibitors: A newer option that decreases the actions of renin, an enzyme involved in the regulation of blood pressure. 

The choice of medication, or combination of medications, is tailored to everyone’s health profile and hypertension severity. Ongoing communication with healthcare providers ensures the most effective treatment strategy is in place. 

Monitoring & Follow-Up Care 

Effective hypertension management requires ongoing evaluation and adjustment of treatment plans. Regular blood pressure monitoring at home and consistent medical check-ups helps ensure treatment effectiveness and allow timely adjustments as needed. 

Next Steps

It’s very important to take proactive steps towards managing high blood pressure. e-Surgery supports you on this journey with a wealth of resources, from educational blogs on heart health to a comprehensive range of hypertension medications available online after completing a consultation with one of our prescribers. Engage with our platform to access the latest treatments and advice, tailored to your unique health needs. Our free ‘Ask-a-Pharmacist’ service is a good resource if you require professional healthcare advice from our prescribers.

Remember, managing hypertension is a continuous process that involves regular monitoring, lifestyle adjustments, and, when necessary, medication. Partner with e-Surgery to navigate your path to better heart health, ensuring you’re equipped with the knowledge and resources to take control of your hypertension effectively.